Factors Affecting The Performance Of Activated Carbon
Granular activated carbon (GAC) is commonly utilized in for the removal of natural constituents and residual disinfectants in water supplies to improves the taste and minimizing well being hazards;It protects other water remedy elements akin to RO membranes and ion alternate resins from possible organic fouling and damages . On account of its multi purposeful nature . Activated carbon is a favored water treatment method and norton abrasive sand blasting grit the fact that it adds nothing detrimental to the treated water.
Most activated carbons are made from raw materials akin to nutshells, coal , wood and petroleum. The 2 fundamental principal by which activated carbon removes contaminants from water are adsorption and catalytic reduction. Organics wastes are removed by adsorption and residual disinfectants are removed by catalytic reduction. Factors affecting the performance of activated carbon are:
pH:The natural removal activity decreases with the rise in pH. Most organics compounds are less soluble and more readily adsorbed at a lower pH. . A thumb rule is to increase the carbon bed dimension by 20 % for each pH unit above neutral . Molecular weight:The adsorbing property of activated carbon will increase with the increase in its molecular weight .. Nevertheless, the pores sizes on the surface of the carbon must be massive sufficient to allow the molecules to move within. A mixture of low and high molecular weight molecules needs to be designed and used species difficult to removed.. Contaminant focus: Higher the contaminant focus, the greater is the removal capability of activated carbon. The contaminant is more more likely to be adsorbed. As concentrations enhance, nonetheless, so do effluent leakages. The upper limit for contaminants is a couple of hundred PPM . Higher contaminant concentration may require extra contact time with the activated carbon. Additionally, the natural removal is enhanced by the presence of hardness in the water, so every time doable, it's good to place activated carbon units upstream of the ion removal models Particle size: Activated carbon commonly available sizes are in 20 /50 mesh ,12 / 40 mesh and eight / 30 mesh . The finer mesh gives the most effective contact and higher removal. Temperature: viscosity decreases with the increase in temperature , thereby growing adsorption rate. Flow rate: Usually, the lower the flow rate, the more time the contaminant will get diffuse into the pore and be adsorbed.